Uno de los argumentos principales en mi libro, La rebelión de Tupac Amaru, es que la iglesia tuvo un papel fundamental en la derrota de los insurgentes. En realidad, no fue la iglesia sino su represenante en Cusco, el Obispo Juan Manuel Moscoso y Peralta, quien diseñó una brillante y eficaz estrategia. Se basaba en mantener a los sacerdotes y sus asistentes en la “zona roja”, así dando alivio e información a los enemigos de la rebelión. Moscoso y Peralta sabía que José Gabriel Condorcanqui y Micaela Bastidas eran fieles que no iban a permitir la muerte de un cura. También excomulgó a Tupac Amaru, medida de gran impacto como explico en el libro.
El tema de la “gran rebelión” surandina de 1780-1783 ha retomado actualidad con la publicación del libro La Rebelión de Tupac Amaru (Lima: IEP, 2015), de Charles Walker. El autor ha optado por una historia narrativa (que presenta paso a paso el desarrollo de los sucesos, mostrando las incertidumbres de cada momento y evitando un análisis determinista), exponiendo de manera clara y crítica las interpretaciones sobre el movimiento rebelde (interpretaciones previas así como propias, aunque sin abundar en complicados debates historiográficos). Esta estrategia discursiva y analítica resulta más accesible a los lectores, que en el Perú de hoy parecen estar demandando conocer un pasado del cual todos creen saber algo, pero que no terminan de entender a cabalidad.
Charles F. Walker’s book is a vivid narrative history of the Tupac Amaru Rebellion (1780–82), which profoundly shook, but did not ultimately topple, the foundations of Spanish rule in the Andes. In its ability to make sense of an extremely complex, multifaceted movement without losing the thread of the larger story, The Tupac Amaru Rebellion can be compared with Laurent Dubois’s narrative history of the Haitian Revolution, Avengers of the New World (2004). Like Dubois, Walker skillfully analyzes the perspectives and motivations—as well as the shortcomings—of the movement’s principal leaders, while also considering what led indigenous people to join en masse.
Appreciated among Latin Americanists in the United States andhighly regarded in Chile, Arnold (“Arnie”) Bauer taught history at the University of California at Davis from 1970 to 2005, and was director of the University of California’s Education Abroad Program in Santiago, Chile, for five years between 1994 and 2005. Well-known for hisengaging writing style, Bauer reflects broad interests in his publications:agrarian history (Chilean Rural Society: From the Spanish Conquest to 1930 ), the Catholic Church and society (as editor, La iglesia en la economía de América Latina, siglos XIX–XIX ), and material culture (Goods, Power, History: Latin America’s Material Culture ). He has also written an academic mystery regarding a sixteenth-century Mexican codex, The Search for the Codex Cardona (2009). His coming-of-agememoir (Time’s Shadow: Remembering a Family Farm in Kansas ) describes his childhood and was recently named one of the top five books of 2012 by The Atlantic. He has also written some 50 articles and book chapters and more than 60 book reviews.
From late 1780 to 1782, indigenous uprisings convulsed Andean society from Cusco to Potosí, presenting the most significant challenge to Spanish rule in America between the conquest and independence. During the past half-century, the “Great Rebellion” of the Túpac Amarus in southern Peru and the Kataris in Bolivia has morphed from footnote to central narrative in Andean history, generating a substantial scholarship; it is now treated as a major anticolonial revolt in the Atlantic world’s age of revolution.
The Tupac Amaru movement, strictly understood as the rebellion led by Jose ́Condorcanqui, who went by the Inca royal name Tupac Amaru, and his relatives in southern Peru between Cuzco and Lake Titicaca from 1780 to 1783, was one of the best-kept secrets in Latin American history. The largest uprising of native peoples against European rule since the conquest era, it is an obligatory reference in any survey of Spanish colonialism, Peruvian history, and peasant or indigenous unrest. It has been also the object of intense historiographical scrutiny since at least the 1970s onward, following the impulses of consecutive waves of socioeconomic history, history of mentalities, structural anthropology, collective action theories, and the like. Tupac Amaru has become in due time a transnational political and cultural icon as well. His name figured prominently in late twentieth-century Latin American guerrilla groups, folk songs, and even the American rap scene. Even those who know nothing about the Andean past know something about the self-proclaimed new Inca.
Serulnikov, Sergio. Revolution in the Andes. The Age of Tupac Amaru. Translated by David Frye (North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2013).
Walker, Charles. The Tupac Amaru Rebellion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2014).
The Tupac Amaru and Katarista rebellions were a cycle of indigenous uprisings between Cusco and Potosi in 1780–1782, which claimed over 100,000 lives, primarily indigenous, out of a population of 1.5 million, before being crushed by colonial authorities. They have received excellent local studies, but no modern synthetic treatment. The books under review both meet that description, but they are complementary rather than redundant. Sergio Serulnikov’s is a concise survey of the rebellions throughout the region, bringing clarity to a complex group of uprisings, each with its own contours and protagonists.
El 8 de abril se conmemora el sacrificio de Pedro Vilca Apaza, pieza clave para la rebelión tupacamarista en el Altiplano. Aquí, Charles Walker nos da a conocer los detalles que debes conocer.
The Tupac Amaru Rebellion stormed through the Andes from 1780 to 1783. The largest uprising in colonial Spanish-American history, it stretched from its base just south of Cuzco, Peru, into Charcas, in present-day Bolivia, with parallel skirmishes and revolts in what became Chile, Argentina, and Colombia. Rebels sacked haciendas, torched textile mills, and harangued the indigenous peasantry in the Inca language, Quechua, to rise up against the Spanish. The rebels presented a complex platform that included Inca revivalism and the abolition of a series of taxes and impositions on indigenous people.